This

**Calculus 4th edition by Michael Spivak**differs from the third mainly in the inclusion of additional problems, as well as a complete update of the Suggested Reading, together with some changes of exposition, mainly in Chapters 5 and 20.
Some reviewers
have been puzzled as to the style of this

*Calculus 4th edition, Michael Spivak*book, deep mathematics for the unsophisticated reader. This is explained by its origin in the 1960's when many bright high school students were not offered calculus until college. Hence some top colleges experimented with very high level introductions to calculus aimed at gifted and committed students who had never seen calculus. Possibly Spivak took such a course, but certainly his book was used as the text for one at Harvard, and was still used more recently at a few schools still offering this course, such as University of Chicago.
Unfortunately
today, due to the somewhat misguided AP movement, which is oriented to
standardized test performance rather than understanding, almost all
mathematically talented high school students take calculus before college,
receiving significantly inferior preparation to what they would receive in
college. The result is that many top colleges where the Spivak type course
originated, no longer see the need to offer it.

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__Calculus 4th edition, Michael Spivak__PDF Solutions ebook Download**Hardcover: 680 pages | Publisher: Publish or Perish;**